Residual Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) – is one of the lowest-value petroleum products from a refinery. It is essentially a by-product of producing the light products that are the primary focus of a refinery. The primary end use for residual fuel oil is as a fuel in simple furnaces such as power plants and industrial boilers and bunker fuel. Bunker fuel or bunker crude is technically any type of fuel oil used aboard vessels. Named from the tanks on ships and in ports that it is stored in; they are bunker fuel tanks. Since the 1980s the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has been the accepted standard for marine fuels (bunkers). The standard is listed under number 8217, with recent updates in 2005 and 2010. The standard divides fuels into residual and distillate fuels.
D6 Diesel Standards and Classification
CCAI and CII are two indexes which describe the ignition quality of residual fuel oil, and CCAI is especially often calculated for marine fuels.
Despite this marine fuels are still quoted on the international bunker markets with their maximum viscosity (which is set by the ISO 8217 standard – see below) due to the fact that marine engines are designed to use different viscosities of fuel.
The unit of viscosity used is the Centistoke and the d6 fuel most frequently quoted are listed below in order of cost, the least expensive first-
* IFO 380 – Intermediate d6 fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 380 Centistokes
* IFO 180 – Intermediate d6 fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 180 Centistokes
* LS 380 – Low-sulphur (<1.5%) intermediate d6 fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 380 Centistokes
* LS 180 – Low-sulphur (<1.5%) intermediate d6 fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 180 Centistokes
* MDO – Marine diesel oil.
* MGO – Marine gasoil.
SPECIFICATION DIESEL FUEL OIL D6
|Method Units 方法||Test 测试||Result 结果||Unit 单位|
|ASTM D5002||Density and Relative|
Density of Crude Oils密度D6柴油
Average API Gravity 平均API重力
|29.7 (29.7) (Min)||API|
|ASTM D1298-99||Density @15 Deg C 密度||0.87 (0.8775) (Max)||Kg/t|
|ASTM D97||Pour Point 凝点|
Pour Point 凝点
|< -27.4 (-32.8)|
|ASTM D93-IP34||Pensky-Martens Closed 密封闪点|
Cup Flash Point
Corrected Flash Point 矫正闪点
|117 (137) (MIN)||°F|
|ASTM D4294||Sulfur Content in Petroleum Products by EDXRF Sulfur Content 硫含量||0.38(0.35) (MAX)||Wt%|
|ASTM D445||Kinematic/Dynamic Viscosity|
Kinematic Viscosity @ 122°F / 50°C
|ASTM D6304||Water Content by Coulometric|
Karl Fisher Titration
|0.20 (0.7) (MAX)||Wt%|
|ASTM D482||Ash from Petroleum Products|
|0.279 (1.007) (MAX)||Wt%|
|ASTM D6161||Conversion of Kinematic Viscosity|
To SUS/SFS 1Saybolt furoi
viscosity 122°F 粘度
|ASTM D5184||Aluminum and Silicon in Fuel Oils|
by ICP-AES or AAS
Aluminum Content 铝含量Silicon Content 硅含量
|ASTM D95||Water by Distillation, Vol% 蒸馏水||0.70 (MAX)||Vol%|
|ASTM D4530.06||Carbon Residue 炭渣||1.11 (MAX)||Wt%|
|IP 143 Asphlteness Heptane lnsolubles|
| ||Asphaltene Content 沥青||0.08||Wt%|
|IP 501 Determination of AL,Si,V,Ni,Fe,Na,Ca,Zn,P in Fuel Oil-ICPES|
| ||Aluminium 铝|
Table of fuel oils
|No. 1 fuel oil||No. 1 distillate||No. 1 diesel fuel||Distillate||9-16|
|No. 2 fuel oil||No. 2 distillate||No. 2 diesel fuel||Distillate||10-20|
|No. 3 fuel oil||No. 3 distillate||No. 3 diesel fuel||Distillate|| |
|No. 4 fuel oil||No. 4 distillate||No. 4 residual fuel oil||Distillate/Residual||12-70|
|No. 5 fuel oil||No. 5 residual fuel oil||Heavy fuel oil||Residual||12-70|
|No. 6 fuel oil||No. 6 residual fuel oil||Heavy fuel oil||Residual||20-70|Low sulfur fuel oil (LSFO)
Heavy fuel oils are referred to as low sulfur fuel oil (LSFO) if their sulfur content is below 1%. Usually these are marine fuel types IFO 180 or IFO 380, which have been desulfurized. Until the end of 2014, ships could still travel through Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with this type of marine fuel.
Ultra-low sulfur fuel oil (ULSFO)
Since January 1, 2015, in accordance with Annex VI of the MARPOL Conventions, ship emissions must contain no more than 0.1% sulfur in such protected areas (ECAs). Due to these tightened restrictions, LSFOs no longer play an appreciable role in these areas and have been virtually replaced with the ultra-low sulfur fuel oil (ULSFO) marine fuel, which complies with those limits. Theoretically, heavily desulfurized IFO fuels could also be used here, but in practice the desulfurization of such heavy fuel oils is too expensive to make economic sense. For this reason, today the term ultra-low sulfur fuel oil usually refers not to desulfurized heavy fuel oils, but to marine gasoil, which is already low in sulfur. It is composed exclusively of distillates and has a sulfur content of under 0.1%. This marine fuel is also known as ultra-low marine gasoil. ULSFO is used in medium- to high-speed diesel engines. When converting from LSFO to ULSFO, it must be ensured that the engine technology is compatible with ULSFO.High-sulfur fuel oil (HSFO)
The alternative to using marine fuels with such low sulfur content in ECAs is the use of scrubbers. This technology involves injecting water into the exhaust stream to reduce sulfur and other emissions. However, refitting a ship with this technology costs several million euros and means that the ship is docked for a period of time, which leads to a loss in revenue and income for the shipowners. On the other hand, a scrubber allows higher-sulfur marine fuels to be used. In this context, such heavy fuel oils are designated as high-sulfur fuel oils (HSFO), which have a maximum sulfur content of 3.5% as permitted under ISO 8217.
Bunker Fuel (Marine Gas Oil) –
The name bunker fuel is thought to come from the storage area within a boat or ship where fuel is stored, known as the fuel bunker. Maritime vessels use bunker fuel to power their motors, but depending on your vessel, it might not be regular white diesel. Some watercraft indeed use diesel and other, larger vessels marine gas oil (which is considered a low sulfur fuel oil or LSFO) as their source of bunker fuel.Crown Oil is experienced in supplying both and in this bunker fuel guide, our aim is to help you understand the differences between marine fuel types.However, for the majority of larger commercial ocean-going vessels, they currently rely on HFO or heavy fuel oil to generate power onboard to propel their ships across the ocean, which is the most widely used type of fuel for these vessels. These are considered to be highly polluting and a cause of respiratory diseases and is a component of acid rain that damages vegetation and wildlife.The new regulations brought in by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) will ban ships from using fuels with a sulphur content above 0.5%, compared with the current limit of 3.5%. This will ultimately require all waterborne vessels to make the switch from heavy fuel oil (HFO) fuels to marine gas oil (MGO) or risk fines or even vessels being detained, which could affect vital requirements such as insurance cover.
What is bunker fuel?
The name itself, ‘bunker fuel’ dates back to steam-powered ships which at the time were powered by coal and stored their ‘fuel’ inside of ‘coal bunkers’ onboard the ship. Now, in place of coal bunkers, ships have fuel tanks, but they’re still often referred to as bunkers.As so, the name doesn’t refer to the type of fuel the watercraft uses, so the fuel type can be a variety of different fuels depending on the vessel itself. Currently, for larger ocean-going vessels this will generally mean heavy fuel oil, but there are plans to limit its usage and move them towards using marine gas oil in future.
Other types of bunker fuels include:
MGO – Marine Gas Oil
MDO – Marine Diesel Oil
IFO – Intermediate Fuel Oil
MFO – Marine Fuel Oil
HFO – Heavy Fuel Oil
Which bunker fuel is used by ocean-going vessels for the high seas?
Larger ships that travel the high seas generally use heavy fuel oil which is causing a problem for many of the vessels owners with the new regulations coming into play in 2020. This will require all shipowners to make the switch to marine gas oil which is a lower sulfur distillate fuel and meets the criteria of the new regulations.The current global shipping fleet consumes roughly around 4 million barrels per day of high sulfur fuel oil such a heavy fuel oil, but roughly around 3 million barrels per day of that demand is expected to “disappear overnight” as shipowners make the switch to the lower sulphur fuels, according to the average market forecast calculated by Norway’s SEB Bank.But that won’t be the end of high sulfur fuel oil’s usage in ocean-going vessels
, as shipowners can install kit called a “scrubber” that strips out sulfur emissions which will allow them to use the current dirtier fuel oil. Some ships already have them installed with many more expected to install them to be able to continue to use the cheaper, lower sulphur fuels. By 2020, it’s suggested that around 2000 ships could have installed scrubbers, according to Wartsila, SEB Bank and industry analyst AlphaTanker. But this is a small fraction of the roughly 90,000 vessels in the global fleet, of which around 60,000 current sail through international routes.
Which bunker fuel do recreational vessels use?
If you own or operate a smaller marine vessel such as recreational boats and yachts – with rear-mounted impeller engines. You’re then eligible to use regular diesel (DERV), the exact same fuel that you will find at the petrol station pumps and in use in car and heavy goods vehicles. However, this is not the only option open to private pleasure craft owners, HMRC regulations actually allow for the use of rebated gas oil which is also known as red diesel. It is also legal to purchase red diesel for propulsion purposes, and we’ll explain the intricacies of that next.
Red diesel for marine use
According to the Royal Yachting Association
(RYA), recreational boaters can purchase red diesel, however, they must pay the full rate of tax as they would for regular diesel fuel. Boaters will also need to declare to their supplier if they intend to use the fuel to propel a pleasure craft. They must also declare to HMRC the percentage of fuel will be used for propulsion with the below wording:“I declare that [ ] % of the fuel purchased will be used for propelling a private pleasure craft.I am aware that the Hydrocarbon Oil Duties Act 1979, which permits the use of marked diesel to propel private pleasure craft, only applies within UK waters. I acknowledge that nothing in that Act, or the making of this declaration, affects any restrictions or prohibitions that may apply to the use of fuel for propelling private pleasure craft outside UK waters, including any restrictions or prohibitions under the law of another Member State that apply within the waters of that Member State.”Red diesel can be purchased at the reduced rate of duty when it is being used for heating or electricity generation, hence its other name, heating oil.
Do I need ultra-low sulphur fuel oil?
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has recently announced a 0.50% global sulphur cap on marine fuel emissions that is due on January 1 2020. Under the new cap, ships must use marine fuels that have sulphur content with no more than 0.50% (ULSFO fuel) to help reduce the amount of sulphur oxide in the air. Alternatively, vessels will need to be retrofitted with filters that bring sulphur emissions in line with regulations when using regular bunker fuel.
Marine fuel delivery
We delivers fuels, oils and lubricants across the world, so, no matter where you are located, if you require a marine gas oil delivery, we are able to supply from 205-litres within 30-miles of our depots, and from 500-litres to 100,000-litres anywhere in the UK. If it’s an emergency we can even ensure your fuel is delivered within 24-hours so you’re not left waiting for your delivery.
Marine fuel polishing
Diesel and water can be a lethal combination for engines and machinery alike, and that’s why it’s essential to have your fuel checked at least once a year. For diesel that is contaminated, we offers a fuel uplift service and a fuel polishing service, allowing you to have high-quality bunker fuel at hand with no worries of any damage being caused by bad fuel.
2020 IMO Sulphur Regulations – Get Your Ship Ready
The clock is ticking. The 2020 IMO sulphur regulations are on the horizon, so you need to ensure your vessel is in ship-shape. But what does this mean for the industry?
From 1 January 2020, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is banning ships from using fuels with a sulphur content if no more than 0.5%, compared with the current limit of 3.5%. The new regulations may not float your boat, but they’re the latest wave of measures being introduced to create huge environmental and health benefits. The tighter guidelines are said to prevent over 570,000+ premature deaths between 2020 and 2025 in a study cited by the IMO.
The Emission Control Areas (ECAs) will remain at the 2015 standard of 0.1% sulphur content.
What must ships do to meet the new IMO sulphur regulations?
Use low sulphur and alternative fuels
All aboard a smooth sail to success… Simply switching to low burning fuels such as marine gas oil (MGO) or ultra-low sulphur fuel oil (ULSFO) is the most straightforward route to take.
Unless your ship has an alternative arrangement – like a scrubber – any high sulphur fuel oil that is not used up before 1 January 2020 must be debunkered. We recommend that you have a minimum quantity of 0.5% fuel onboard by mid-December 2019.
Invest in fuel system modifications and tank cleaning
When switching to the new low sulphur fuels you must consider new fuel testing requirements. You must ensure that your supplier can uplift your old fuel, clean your fuel tank and replace it with ULSFO.
Does the sulphur limit apply only to ships on international voyages?
The sulphur oxides regulation (MARPOL Annex VI, regulation 14) applies to all ships – from international voyages between two or more countries to domestic voyages, solely within the waters of a Party in the MARPOL Annex.
Why is low sulphur fuel needed?
Heavy fuel oil is the predominant type of “bunker” oil used by ships that is produced as a residue through the distillation of crude oil. Crude oil contains sulphur – and following combustion in engines, sulphur ends up in ship emissions. These sulphur oxides are harmful to human health and cause respiratory problems and lung disease.Atmospherically, sulphur oxides cause acid rain which harms forests, crops and aquatic species, and contribute to the acidification of our oceans. Therefore, limiting these harmful emissions will greatly improve air quality and protect our environment.
Will there be enough low sulphur fuel for the world’s ships?
New blends of fuel oil for ships will be developed to meet the new 0.5% requirements, including major oil refiners Royal Dutch Shell and BP. Gas oil with a low sulphur content can be blended with heavy fuel oil to reduce the sulphur content.These new blends, however, are likely to cost more initially than those used by most ships today. Another alternative is to switch to a different fuel completely, which is sulphur and FAME-free, or use scrubbers as mentioned above. Failure to comply will result in fines or vessels being detained, which could affect vital requirements such as insurance cover. The enforcement will be policed by flat and port states, not the IMO.
Keep your ship afloat with Crown Oil Environmental
We offer industry-leading fuel testing at our partner laboratory to make sure that all fuel meets the new spec. If it doesn’t – we can:
✓ uplift and debunker the high sulphur (non-compliant) stock
✓ clean the tank after switching to the new fuel
✓ replace it with new low sulphur fuel .
We are prepared and can help you better prepare for the new regulation too. Our partners have developed a range of fuel products to the marine industry, including marine gas oil, low sulphur fuel oil to ensure your ship is prepared and compliant.What’s more, our partners vast range of lubricants are blended specifically to protect engines burning marine fuels from wear and tear and corrosion.The clock is ticking… get in touch with Crown Oil Environmental today on %tel% to get prepared for the new IMO rules.
Viscosity of Bunker Oil – Marine Fuel Oil
Distillate Fuels, residual Fuels
What is Bunker Oil? – Description and Classification Overview
Bunker oil is generally any type of fuel oil used aboard ships. We can distinguish between two main types: distillate fuels and residual fuels.
Marine fuels are classified using the “Bunker ABC”:
- Bunker A corresponds to the distillate fuel oil No. 2
- Bunker B is a No. 4 or No. 5 fuel oil
- Bunker C corresponds to the residual fuel oil No. 6
No. 6 is the most common oil, that’s why “bunker fuel” is often used as a synonym for the No. 6 residual fuel oil which requires heating before the oil can be pumped. No. 5 fuel oil is also called “navy special”. No. 5 or No. 6 also furnace fuel oil (FFO).
In the maritime field another classification is used:
- MGO (Marine Gas Oil): a distillate fuel oil (No. 2, Bunker A)
- MDO (Marine Diesel Oil): a blend of MGO and HFO
- IFO (Intermediate Fuel Oil): a blend of MGO and HFO, with less gasoil than MDO
- MFO (Medium Fuel Oil): a blend of MGO and HFO, with less gasoil than IFO
- HFO (Heavy Fuel Oil): a residual fuel oil (No. 6, Bunker C)
Marine fuels are traditionally classified according to their kinematic viscosity. This is a valid criterion for oil quality as long as the oil is produced by atmospheric distillation only. Today, almost all marine fuels are based on fractions from more advanced refinery processes and the viscosity itself says little about the oil’s quality as fuel. Despite this, marine fuels are still quoted on the international bunker markets with their maximum viscosity set by ISO 8217 as marine engines are designed to use different viscosities of fuel. The density is also an important parameter for fuel oils since marine fuels are purified before use to remove water and dirt. Therefore, the oil must have a density which is sufficiently different from water.
Viscosity Tables – Measurement data
|Related||Bunker oil, marine fuel, bunker C, heavy oil, viscosity, ISO 8217|