Each and every piece of cloth embodies the spirit, skill, and personal history of an individual weaver
Fabric is a flexible material made up of a network of natural or artificial fibers (yarn or thread). Yarn is made by spinning raw fibers of wool, flax, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands. Also called, textiles, or cloths, fabrics are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, tatting, felting, or braiding. A fabric is a material produced through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in the creation of other goods such as clothes. The term cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is often used to refer to a section of fabric that has been processed in some way.
Countries are chasing textile and apparel exports for numerous benefits – boost local, state and federal economy, enhanced domestic competitiveness, diversification, and to gain global market share.
- Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
- Other methods are knitting, crocheting, felting, and braiding or plaiting.
- The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling.
- Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric; it is used in many types of garments.
- Knitting may be done by hand or by machine.
- Crochet is a process of creating textiles by using a crochet hook to interlock loops of yarn, thread, or strands of other materials.
- Knots by themselves are any accidental or intentional entanglement of cord, braid, ribbon, beading, fabric or other material that will create a new shape or structure by forming loops, intertwining, and weaving of the base fabric.
- The new structure may be used to enhance or accessorize many forms of dress.
- Tatting is a method of using thread and tools to create intricate knotwork.
- It’s a precursor to many other crafts and combines various techniques seen in all of them.
- For example, you make knots, but you also draw from weaving to create the texture of tatting fabric.
- Felting, consolidation of certain fibrous materials by the application of heat, moisture, and mechanical action, causing the interlocking, or matting, of fibres possessing felting properties.
- Such fibres include wool, fur, and certain hair fibres that mat together under appropriate conditions because of their peculiar structure and high degree of crimp (waviness).
- Wool can produce felting even when mixed with other fibres.
- Unlike bonded fabrics, felts do not require an adhesive substance for their production.
- Braiding or plaiting. Braid is made by interlacing three or more yarns or fabric strips, forming a flat or tubular narrow fabric.
- It is used as trimming and for belts and is also sewn together to make hats and braided rugs.
- A range of intermediate products derived from benzene or xylenes, such as p-xylene, cyclohexane, and TPA, which may be further processed to create polymers for synthetic fibers such as polyester and nylon.
- Textile, any filament, fibre, or yarn that can be made into fabric or cloth, and the resulting material itself.
- Apparel – Dress, also called apparel or attire, clothing and accessories for the human body. The variety of dressis immense.
- Hotel Linen – We are one of the leading manufacturers and suppliers of hotel beds, bed, restaurant, kitchen and health club linen. We provide high quality. As the leading Hotel linen supplier we understand that our products are the brand ambassadors for your hotels. Hence we make sure that the quality of our hotel linen is top notch. 1WEC being the leading Hotel Linen Supplier assures you that the most important priority of a hotel, i.e hotel linen is catered to in the most professional and cost effective manner. Our product range includes
- Products Categories
- Hotel Bed Linen– Bed sheets, Duvet & Duvet cover, Pillow & Pillow case, Comforters, Mattress Topper, Fitted Sheets, Blankets, Cushion Covers, Bolster & Bolster Cover, Rugs.
- Hotel Bath Linen– Towels, Robes, Slippers, Mats, Shower Curtains, Laundry Bags, Napkins.
- Hotel Spa, Gym, Beach, Saloon and Pool Linen– Towels ( Bath, Hand, Face, Pool, Spa, Health Club, Beach, Saloon ), Beach Bed Covers.
- Hotel Restaurant, Banquet, Kitchen, Bar & Table Linen– Table Cloth & Napkins, Chef Apparel ( Jackets, Pants, Shirts), Kitchen & Bar Towels, Table Skirts and Clips, Placemats, Aprons.
- Hotel Accessories– Soaps, Freshners, Shampoo, Toothbrush, Janitorial Supplies, Conditioners, Lotions, Shaving & Dental Kit,Guest Amenities, Lockers, Iron & Iron table, Cutlery, Coffee Makers, Compact Refrigerators, Hair Dryers, Staff Apparel( Jackets, Pants, Shirts).
- PPE– Scrub Suits, Personal Protection Pack.
- Products Categories
- Home Linen –
- Bed Linen – Bed Sets, Duvet Covers, Sheets , Pillow Cases, Rugs.
- Bedding – Duvets, Pillows, Protectors, Topper.
- Bath – Towels & Rugs
Soft Furnishings – Throws, Cushions, Candles & Fragrances, Linen, Bags.
- Hospital Linen –
Bedsheets, Towels, Pillows, Nursing Disposable UnderPads.
- The global automotive upholstery market is rapidly transforming materials and technology and is highly competitive.
- Automotive upholstery includes seat upholstery, boot liners, floor mats, seat belts, window frames, seat trim, sunroof, car roof, door panel trim, head rest covers, column padding, cladding, insulating material, and under-shield.
- The market consists of a few well-established and well-diversified international, regional, and local players.
- Cost-effective upholstery with application-specific properties are offered by local and regional vendors.
- The Automobile Interior Manufacturing industry manufactures automobile seats and interiors, including upholstery, trimming, seat covers, seat frames and seat belts.
- The industry also includes the production of seats for aircrafts. Historically, automakers have been the main drivers of demand for the industry.
- Over the five years to 2020, demand for total automobiles has increased in line with the improving economy, prompting automakers to increase production.
- Primarily, a surge in demand in light-trucks has helped spear auto production during the current period.
- As a result, upstream suppliers, such as automobile interior manufacturers, experienced heightened demand.
- Overall, industry revenue has increased at an annualized rate of 0.5% to $35.4 billion.
- Companies in this industry manufacture motor vehicle seats and various interior components, including trimming, motor vehicle upholstery, seat covers and seat belts and seat frames.
- Industry operators also manufacture seats used in aircrafts.
- Industry Products and Services
- Automobile trimmings
- Seats for aircrafts
- Seats for cars, light trucks, buses and heavy trucks
- Seat covers
- Seat frames
- Seat belts
- Motor vehicle seat manufacturing.
- Motor vehicle seat frame manufacturing.
- Motor vehicle seat belt manufacturing.
- Motor vehicle interior-trimming manufacturing.
- Aircraft seat manufacturing
- Key Buying Industries
- Car & Automobile
- SUV & Light Truck
- Truck & Bus.
- Truck, Trailer & Motor Home
- Aircraft, Engine & Parts.
- Key Selling Industries
- Textile Mills.
- Leather Good & Luggage.
- Synthetic Fiber.
- Urethane Foam.
- Product Type
- Antimicrobial Textile Market Substance Type:
- Antimicrobial Textile Market by Implementation:
- Road Construction
- Antimicrobial Textile Market by Fabric:
- Antimicrobial Textile Market by Finishing Techniques:
- Foam Finishing Method.
- Antimicrobial products continue to play a role in odor control as well as controlling the spread of micro-organisms.
- Antimicrobial fibers then are textiles to which antimicrobial agents have been applied, either at the surface or within the fibers. Additives can be introduced to the fiber during spinning or extrusion, combined with dyes or pigments or applied as a finishing process. The chosen method is determined by a variety of factors including final use of the fabric, the capability of the manufacturer and budget.
- Antibacterial textiles are used where moisture and microbes meet. The materials see use in a variety of applications including healthcare; hygiene; medical devices; sportswear; food packaging; storage; thermal and mechanical protection; automotive textiles; heating, ventilation and air conditioning; air filters; and water purification systems. They are used to protect healthcare personnel with functional clothing as well as fabrics all around the home, including socks, mattresses, baby diapers and coverings.
- Flame retardant fabric is specialized fabric designed to resist burning when exposed to open flame, explosions and arc flashes without melting.
- It is designated based on the time it takes for the fabric to burn. Flame retardant fabric may be naturally fire resistant because of its natural fiber weave, or treated with a fire-resistant chemical to resist heat and flames.
- These fabrics find major application in protective clothing industry.
- Manufacturers generally classify fire retardant fabric into one of two types:
- Inherently Fire Retardant Fabric: Inherently fire retardant fabric is made from fibers that are, on their own, resistant to combustion when they come into contact
with a spark or flame.
- Treated Fire Retardant Fabric: Treated fire retardant fabric is a fabric that is not inherently flame retardant but has, after milling, been treated with a chemical that makes it so.
- Inherently Fire Retardant Fabric: Inherently fire retardant fabric is made from fibers that are, on their own, resistant to combustion when they come into contact
- Within either category, a wide range of features — including the composition, weight and construction of the fabric — will determine the level of fire resistance it offers. Different products meet different regulatory standards, the most important of which are NFPA 701, FAR 25.853, ASTM D6413 and EN 1021.
- To make an informed purchase, you’ll need to know the type of conditions your end users will be exposed to, as well as the specific safety criteria they need to meet.
- Segmentation of the global flame retardant fabrics market by product type:
- Inherent flame retardant fabrics.
- Chemically treated flame retardant fabrics
- Segmentation of the global flame retardant fabrics market by material type:
- Segmentation of the global flame retardant fabrics market by end user:
• Automotive & Transportation
• Building and construction
- Functional textile fabrics are materials with various special functions to meet the needs of different industries.
- It is a special textile manufacturing industry. Its products are widely used in clothing, aviation and aerospace vehicles, military, transportation (automotive), environmental protection filtration, medical, health care, industry, agriculture, civil engineering, construction, Sports equipment, home facilities and all areas of life.
- Functional textiles are textiles with integrated functions of controlling or adjusting according to its application area. Functions such as temperature control, humidity control etc. are such functions which are in build upon manufacturing. The basic and mostly used fibers in the functional textiles are viscose (rayon) and polyester fibers.
- Besides this, the demand for such functional textiles is majorly for the active and performance type of wear. he aerothermal technology, which protects from extreme hot and cold condition is growing in functional textiles.
- The brand Peak Performance (ski wear) of IC Group A/S, Adidas offers such thermal insulation technology functional textiles. Energear technology of Schoeller Technologies AG receives the energy exerted by the body through far infrared rays, is also a type functional textile. Vast development in the polymer (fiber) industry, coating and finishing industries also contributes in the global functional textiles market.
- The global functional textiles market is segmented on the basis of type, functions and application.
- Based on the type of garment the global functional textiles market is segmented into:
• Active wear
• Performance wear
• Ready to wear
• Seamless wear
- Based on the type of fiber the global functional textiles market is segmented into:
- Based on the type of functions in textiles the global functional textiles market is segmented into:
• Temperature regulating
• Water and oil repellent
- Based on the application area the global functional textiles market is segmented into:
• Personal Protection
• Sports and Leisure
• Military/ war
- The global functional textile market is geographically divided in to five key regions including North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Middle East & Africa. Europe holds a maximum share of functional textile market in terms of production. The fact is due to the the vast growth of textile and apparel industry in Germany, France, Italy, UK and also the high- tech developments. Also, North America holds a healthy market in terms of production for functional textile comparative to Europe. Asia Pacific and MEA offers extensive opportunity for functional textile market. Malaysia, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan and Turkey are anticipated to be the promising market for functional textile market growth prospectus.
- Smart textiles can be defined as textiles that are able to sense and respond to changes in their environment.
- They may be divided into two classes: passive and active smart textiles.
- Smart textiles describe a novel category of textiles which have the capability to sense or/and react with or/and adapt to external conditions or stimuli.
- Smart textiles are the overarching category which includes E-textiles as one type of smart textile; however, it also includes other types of textiles which exhibit smart or intelligent functions without electronic or conductive elements.
- The minimum requirement for a smart textile is the ability to sense environmental conditions or an external stimulus, which qualifies it as “passive smart.” If it further has the ability to react after sensing, then it qualifies as “active smart.” Some examples of this include Grado Zero Espace’s shape-memory shirt made from Oricalco fabric which reacts by changing shape based on sensing heat and Aurelie Mosse’s intentional use of electro-active light-responsive polymers to create textiles for interiors which sense light and react by changing shape for esthetic effect or for function.
- Finally, if a smart textile cumulatively has the ability to sense, react, and adapt based on the learned experience from what it sensed and reacted to previously, then it qualifies as “very smart.”
- A conceptual example of this is exemplified in the “No-Contact Jacket” created by Adam Whiton and Yolita Nugent, which functions to sense heavy force applied to the jacket (e.g., when wearer is hit by an attacker) and reacts by emitting an electrical chart (i.e., to electrocute the attacker) but also could, in the future, have the potential to integrate machine-learning intelligence to record data on cumulative forces sensed and learn to differentiate between amicable forces (e.g., from a hug or tap) and violent forces, depending on position or amount of force or time of day.
- Product Insights
The market has witnessed a considerable growth in the recent years, with a transition from passive to active smart and very smart fabrics. The passive smart fabrics are wearable clothing that can sense the user movement and surrounding environment. This segment led the market in 2018 due to low product prices and less complex functionalities than other variants.
- Very smart textile has the ability to sense, react, and adapt its behavior to the given circumstances and follows the principle of Artificial Intelligence (AI). This segment is expected to witness the highest CAGR over the forecast period on account of its ability to effectively deal with life threatening circumstances, such as accidents or battlefield or to maintain high levels of comfort even during extreme environmental changes.
- Functionality Insights
On the basis of functionality, the global market has been divided into sensing, energy harvesting, luminescence & aesthetics, thermoelectricity, and others.
- The sensing functionality segment accounted for a significant share of the global market in 2019.
- This was mainly attributed to the ability of sensing, which is the most essential attribute of any smart garment.
- Furthermore, sensing and monitoring have been in use in various applications including medical, sports & fitness, and military & defense since a long time.
- On the other hand, energy harvesting segment is projected to register the maximum CAGR of 31.0% during the estimated period.
- End Use Insights
Smart fabrics are used in applications, such as fashion & entertainment, medical, protection & military, architecture, and transportation. The sports & fitness segment is anticipated to witness substantial growth by 2025. Smart textiles possess the ability to react to stimuli generated from mechanical, thermal, magnetic, chemical, and electrical sources. Due to these abilities, it can be used in sophisticated electronics devices including fitness watches and belts for monitoring health and body vitals in real time.
Smart textile market Scope:
• Energy Harvesting
• Luminescence & Aesthetics
• Passive Smart
• Active Smart
By End-user industry:
• Military and Protection
• Sports and fitness
• Fashion and entertainment
What Makes Functional Textiles, Smart?
The evolution of technical textiles takes cues from the electronics and photonics industries. The integration of sensor arrays and plastic optical fiber (POF) creates an extension of functional fabrics commonly known as smart textiles.
At its core, technical textile manufacturing is a vast landscape of advanced yarn systems combined with textile formation techniques. The completed construction can be further transformed through lamination, coatings and composite methods.
Depending on their use, smart fabrics are created by fusing together fibers and technology. These fibers include conductive yarns and polymers, shape memory polymers, encapsulated phase change materials, fiber optics, and other small electronics. They may also use external additions, such as:
• Chemical treatments
• Thermochromic dyes
These materials interact with one another along with an external stimuli — such as temperature, light or pressure — creating a transfer of energy. Once activated, the functional fabric responds depending upon the textile’s function.
What Are Smart Textiles Used For?
Smart textiles generally belong to one of two main categories:
1. Aesthetic: Smart fabric has been breaking out in the fashion industry. Aesthetic smart textiles can light up and change color, have an interactive element or shift with their environment. Fashion designers have already picked up on the new technology, creating entire lines out of smart materials. This category also encompasses decor and design elements.
2. Performance enhancement: With a focus on function over fashion, performance-enhancing smart fabrics provide the user with a unique experience, dependent on their purpose. This includes body temperature regulation, reducing wind and water resistance, guarding against radiation, minimizing the effects of space travel and even controlling the vibration of muscles.
Both categories of smart fabric serve their own purposes and work to solve current issues with industrial and fashionable materials.
What Industries Employ Smart Fabrics?
Smart fabric can be used in any industry. We have seen heightened use in these industries:
• Fashion and footwear
• Sports and fitness
Technology as a Smart Fabric Solution
Smart fabrics solve common issues in many industries. Body temperature regulation is crucial in law enforcement, military, and athletic professions, among others. Rather than relying on layers and worrying about breathability, smart fabric can adapt to temperature shifts fluidly.
Within the medical field, developers are working on textiles that can monitor heart rate, dispense medication, and even transmit immediate notification if the wearer of the textile were to fall.
Currently, researchers at Advanced Functional Fabrics of America (AFFOA) are focusing on four main categories of technology-enabled fibers:
• Emitters that can send data
• Color-changing fibers
• Fibers that can act as batteries
As technicians continue to develop these textiles, their capabilities will expand, making them able to function as a sort of second skin. Temperature-regulating fabric is already available, but progression will allow for a more fluid user experience. The fabric will read stimuli and respond to it with a shift in energy.
One of the most significant areas of progression will likely be in the field of health and wellness. Beauty and medicinal companies are looking at ways we can make fabrics that positively affect the wearer’s health. This includes the ability to:
• Track the physiological condition of patients with sensors
• Outfit fabrics with anti-aging properties, lotions, and perfumes
• Administer medicine through wearable textiles
Making clothing that resists wear is presently underway, thanks to the innovation of smart fabric. Through continued development, self-healing and repairing fabric may become a reality. Tears, holes and seam rips could become a thing of the past. Clothing may evolve from short-term to lifetime purchases.
Increasing Demand for Advanced Technical Textiles for Household Furnishing Applications will Drive Market
• The increasing demand from applications such as cleaning and conveying industrial equipment, agriculture and horticulture, environmental protection, sport and leisure, household furnishing and coverings, packaging industry, and personal protective equipment among others, serves as the key technical textiles market growth driver.
• Besides this, the multi-dimensional properties such as high versatility, strength, durability, and lightweight will also boost the market. In addition to this, the high chemical, mechanical, and thermal resistance properties of these textiles will aid in the expansion of the market in the forecast period.
Technical Textile Key Market Segments:
Innovative and Technical Textiles: A Sector of Niches with High Added Value
Today it’s needed to adopt a different approach to textiles; fabrics have to be regarded not only just as a surface, to be interpreted graphically, but as a material to all intents and purposes, with its own intrinsic structure and performance. In the sector of technical textiles there are a large number of niches and products, often highly technological and where the end user requires specific requirements, and for which the cost is no longer the only parameter taken into consideration. Regarding innovative textiles the market is growing rapidly and many developments of new products and applications are underway. The technological evolution which transversally integrates human science, materials and information technology, does allow to foresee positive perspectives in the approach towards development of new products and applications.
The general trend is therefore towards high tech, high performance fabrics designed not just to look attractive, but to offer a significant added value in terms of functionality.
In the field of specialized applications, the technological assets are those that provide the highest performance and comfort standards, and ensure a better quality of life. Already there are fabrics capable of reducing risks (e.g. antibacterial, mite-proof, insect proof, odorless, flame retardant, soil-resistant, anti-UV and anti-electromagnetic radiation, etc.). Other fabrics function actively (e.g. heat-regulating, with new visual features, or providing cosmetic-medical effects, and so forth).
While the basic functions remain unchanged, increased user and regulatory requirements for textile interiors have already made such products more complex, multifunctional or even “intelligent”.
Stain or water repellence Table cloth, curtains, furniture, car, bus, train. Airplane seats
Flame retardance All possible textile interiors of buildings and transport systems
Anti-static behaviour Upholestery and seat covers
Anti-bacterial behaviour Bedding, medical textiles
UV- protection Roofs, tents, awnings, blinds, curtains
Insect repellance Tents, nets
Odour absorption Bedding, furniture, car, bus, train, airplane seats
Traditionally textiles have been an important part of the interior of human habitations, as well as human transportation systems such as cars, buses, passenger trains, cruise ships or airplanes. In that respect textile served three basic purposes:
• Decoration (carpets, wall coverings, curtains & drapes, table cloths, etc.)
• Comfort (Upholstery, seat covers, mattresses, bed sheets, blankets, carpets etc)
• Safety (Safety belts and nets, airbags)
Textile Structures for building
Textiles have in the past been predominantly confined to the interior decoration; they are now increasingly becoming part of these constructions themselves. Thanks to better performance characteristics in terms of their strength-weight ratio, durability, flexibility, insulating and absorption properties, and fire and heat resistance, they are in a position to replace more traditional construction materials such as steel and other metals, wood and plastics. Examples of such innovative uses of textiles include:
• Textile-reinforced concrete
• Fibre- and textile-based bridging cables and elements
• Erosion and landslide protection systems
• Textile reinforcement of dykes and other water management systems
• Fibre-based light, flexible and durable piping and canalization
The skin is the principal element that separates and protects the human body from the environment around it. It is also acts as a major exchange system of energy (e.g. heat) and matter (fluids and gases such as water, oxygen etc.) between body and environment. Clothing as an artificial second skin has always been used by humans to enhance the protective function of their own skin. However such additional protection often has a negative effect upon the exchange functionality of the human skin, in certain cases very severely like in the case of full body armour, fire-fighters, uniforms or diving suits. Functional and smart or intelligent clothing are the innovative response to such limitations. Functional clothing refers to products in which one or several specific functionalities are emphasised like strong insulation, water or fire resistance, breathability, wear resistance etc. Smart clothing takes (multi)functionality one step further as it refers to products that can offer their functions in a more adaptive way in response to stimuli from the environment or the wearer. Smart garments can for instance:
• adapt their insulation function according to temperature
• detect vital signals of the wearer’s body
• change colour or emit light upon defined stimuli
• generate or accumulate electric energy to power medical and other electronic devices
The term ‘protective clothing’ covers garments and accessories intended to protect people against the elements, dangerous or hazardous materials, processes or events during the course of their work or during leisure activities. It also encompasses garments intended to protect products, the workplace or environment against people (as for clean room garments), Demand for protective clothing is affected not only by increased levels of industrialization but also by an increased awareness of, Health & Safety and hygiene legislation. The rising trend in violent crime, combined with increased military operations, have led to increases in public spending aimed at reducing injuries to police, civil defence, and the military.
The main end use segments include
Particulate protection (clean room)
Outdoor protection, hi-visibility
Manufacturers of protective clothing are also realizing the need to supply workers with comfortable garments. In fact although guaranteed high levels of performance will remain critical for protective garments, increased emphasis is being placed on wearer comfort, and design aesthetics.
Increasing worldwide interest and participation in active sports and outdoor leisure pursuits have resulted in strong historical growth in the consumption of textile materials in sporting and related goods and equipment.
The continuing pursuit of even higher standards of end-user safety and performance is now stimulating the use of higher priced, branded speciality fibres and other materials, Applications of textiles for sport and leisure are extremely diverse, ranging from sportswear to boat covers, tents or high performance composite
Textile products are omnipresent in the field of human hygiene and medical practice. Their use is based on a number of typical basic textile properties like softness and lightness, flexibility, absorption, filtering etc. Traditional applications include wound care products, diapers, braces, protheses and orthoses, wipes, breathing masks, bedding and covers, ropes and belts etc.
Innovative textile products can both add significantly to effectiveness of medical treatments as well as patient comfort At the same time, new medical textiles, may contribute to cost containment. Such innovative products:
• Provide new treatment options (textile based implants instead of scarce donor organs; artificial tissues, joints and ligaments),
• Speed up recovery after medical treatment (innovative wound dressings; light, Breathable orthoses/ protheses)
• Enhance quality of life of chronically ill people (functional clothing)
Textiles for Transports
The idea of using textiles to transport humans or goods is not recent. Textile ropes and sails have been instrumental in powering ships since the early days of human civilization and the birth of human aviation in the form of balloons, zeppelins and early airplane prototypes is equally textile linked.
The modern concept of mobility enabling textiles come in the form of:
• performance fibre-based textiles used in balloons, parachutes, sails, nets and ropes;
• aircraft wing and body structures or boat rumps made of fibre and textile-based composites;
• inflatable components of satellites or other spacecraft;
• flexible reservoirs, containers or bags used for transportation of gases, liquids and bulk goods by road, rail, water or air.
• composites are underway or expected in the near future across all transportation system fields.
Technical textiles keep the wheels of industry turning in many different ways, separating and purifying industrial products, cleaning gases and effluents, transporting materials between processes, carrying them through and turning machines, absorbing dirt and oil, and acting as substrates for abrasive sheets and other coated products. Industry is an extremely diverse application sector in terms of products, functions and enduses ranging from lightweight nonwoven filters, knitted nets and brushes to heavyweight coated conveyor belting.
Filtration and cleaning products are the most important product segments;
Applications for technical textiles in agriculture include all activities concerned with the growing and harvesting of crops and animals. The principal function of most agricultural textiles relates to the protection of either food produce, animals or land. Enduses range from crop production, through forestry and horticulture, to animal and poultry rearing and fishing. The fishing segment is a large consumer of textile materials. Fishing methods are becoming more industrialized, replacing older small net and line fishing techniques.
Geotextiles are defined as all woven, nonwoven and knitted textile materials used mainly by the civil engineering industry to provide a range of functions such as support, drainage and separation at or below ground level. Geotextiles are used in a wide range of applications including the construction of buildings, bridges, dams, roads, railways and paths as well as embankments, cuttings, dykes and sub-sea coastal engineering projects.
These are now being increasingly widely used for waste containment in hazardous waste tips as well as for industrial and municipal effluent treatment facilities.
Technical Textile Industry by:
By End Use Application:
Technical textiles are the functional fabrics, which find applications across multiple end use industries such as automobile, construction, and others. These materials exhibit enhanced performance as compared to conventional textiles. The technical textile materials includeseveral natural and synthetic fibers such as Saran, Vinalon, Vinyon, Spandex, Modal, Twaron, Kevlar, Nomex and others.
Most of these fibers have multiple applications, owing to their properties such as high strength enhanced mechanical resistance superior insulation, elevated tenacity, and high thermal resistance. Synthetic fibers that are used for these applications are manufactured from natural fibers. In the process, natural fibers are treated with special materials to acquire physical properties of a technical textile. These fibers possess enhanced strength as compared to man-made fibers and hence are used not only in the manufacturing of apparels, but also in various applications such as automotive, medical and others.
- Wearable technology refers to any electronics device which can be worn on the body in the form of clothing or accessory and can collect information to enhance the wearers natural abilities.
- The world’s leading wearable technology companies are nowadays offering various of wearable technology products including fitness trackers, smart watches, smart clothing, head mounted displays, smart jewellery, and implantables.
- The sensors in wearable tech devices records and analyses wearer’s data on a real time basis and provides valuable insights related to the user’s activities and fitness.
- Some wearable devices such as VR headsets, and smart glasses also provide virtual, mixed, and augmented reality experience to the users.
- Putting the smart textiles to the ultimate test
- Taking wearable technology to a whole new level, smart textiles are known to enhance the overall functionality of the apparel by integrating electronic components into the fabric.
- What makes smart fabric technology revolutionary is its ability to communicate, transform, and even grow!
- ‘Smartness’ amid fabrics initially emerged in the form of passive smart textiles, which could sense and react to only environmental conditions.
- Today, we also have active smart textilesand ultra-smart textiles.
- The ultra-smart textiles have units that work similar to a human brain, with reasoning, cognition, and activating capabilities.
- One excellent example of smart textiles is Project Jacquard, developed as a collaboration between Levi’s and Google.
- Designers and developers came together to create complex, networked, and touch-sensitive textile products.
- Sophisticated weaving technology has been used to convert ordinary clothing and interior design fabrics into interactive facades.
- The Trucker Jacket designed by this team looks and feels like any regular denim jacket. What makes it ‘smart’ is the fact that it lets the wearer:
- Receive texts and calls without using the handheld device.
- Play music
- Navigate, without having to look at the screen.
- The number and variety of wearable electronic devices and smart textiles has increased significantly in the past few years, as they offer significant enhancements to human comfort, health and well-being.
- Wearable low-power silicon electronics, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated on fabrics, textiles with integrated Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) and electronic devices such as smart glasses, watches and lenses have been widely investigated and commercialized (e.g. Google glass, Apple Watch).
- There is increasing demand for wearable electronics from industries such as:
• Medical and healthcare monitoring and diagnostics.
• Sportswear and fitness monitoring (bands).
• Consumer electronics such as smart watches, smart glasses and headsets.
• Military GPS trackers, equipment (helmets) and wearable robots.
• Smart apparel and footwear in fashion and sport.
• Workplace safety and manufacturing.
- Advances in smart electronics enable wearable sensor devices and there are a number of devices that are near or already on the market.
- Textile manufacturers have brought sensor based smart textiles products to the market, mainly for the collection of bio-data (e.g. heart-rate, body temperature etc.) and in workplace safety.
- The use of textiles as the smart devices themselves also presents significant advantages over watches and wristbands in terms of long-term use.
- Despite considerable R&D investment, most current wearables do not use flexible or printed components; instead they rely on conventional components from mobile devices.
- Most currently available wearable technology is based on rigid components.
- Flexible electronics offers conformable, adaptable, and immersive wearable devices.
- Recent advancements in flexible and stretchable electronics enabled by advanced materials provides viable solutions to bio-integrated wearable electronics.
- Smart wearable textile’ becomes a major segment of electronic-textiles (e-textiles) along with smart clothing and information science (wearable computer).
- Wearable textiles can sense, react and adapt themselves accordingly to external conditions or stimuli and wearable textiles can be divided into active and passive smart wearable textiles which can be work with human brain with cognition, reasoning, activating capacity.
- Generally, different unsaturated polymeric substrates as polyaniline, polypyrrole, polytiophene and polyacetylene are used as inherently conductive materials.
- Now these day single/ multiwalled-nano carbon tubes (SWCNT/MWCNT) and Ag, Cu, Au nanoparticles are used as e-textiles basic yarn materials with variable cross sectional areas (sandwiched, coated, shelled, tri-lobal or twisted forms). Their conductivity ranges can varies within 10-1-10-8-cm-1.
- The products are assorted with a varieties of depth as centrally controlled sensors, actuators, circuit tree added conductive stitched or embroidered fabric, planer electric yarn, data transferring devices, conductive ink printing, textile Bluetooth antenna, integrated fabric area networked clothing, EMI shielding, power supply clothing, Numetrex sports bra (Textronics), intelligence textile wears like WarmX vest, textile headband for facial EMG and knee sleeve and flex sensor or even as pressure sensor providing relief from post-medical operational health risk hazards. e-textiles can be used in military applications in detection of enemies or biochemical threats. Recently developed ‘Biodegradable Smart Shirt’ textile platform is also able to monitor vital signs and heartbeats or palpitation rates for the patient using data management based information applications. Wearable e-textile has been introduced to fashion articles, for example: ICD+ Jacket with fabricated embroidered textile keypad or improvised to Softswitch remote control and light switch and pillow covers (made by Phillips Electronics and Levi Strauss) which can perform multiple modalities of works like mobile connect, geo-navigation and MP3 players as per the consumer’s choices.
What is an “E-textile”?
An e-textile is a fabric developed with electronics in it to enable conductivity and the use of various technologies. Electronic textiles may be embedded with sensors, batteries, LEDs and hands-free computing devices, depending on the fabric’s purpose. An e-textile is usually created by including conductive materials in the fabric, for example, weaving a silver thread into cloth.
Some e-textiles are designed to support wearable computing technologies, while others are created to add new functionality to non-technical applications. E-textiles for smart clothing and interior design applications could, for example, change color or light up. Sportswear embedded with sensors and other technologies could improve performance through controlling wind resistance, regulating body temperature or monitoring the composition of an athlete’s perspiration.
One of the most promising area for applications of e-textiles is smart medical devices. Sensors in the fabric could monitor a patient’s respiration, heart rate, pulse and blood pressure, record data and notify a caregiver if there were signs of issues that required attention. E-textile patches could monitor blood levels of medication and deliver a dose as required. Sensors themselves can also be made of e-textile material, so that their inclusion in a garment is almost undetectable to the wearer.
An electronic textile is a fabric that can conduct electricity. If it is combined with electronic components it can sense changes in its environment and respond by giving off light, sound or radio waves.. Electronic textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that have electronics and interconnections woven into them. Components and interconnections are a part of the fabric and thus are much less visible and, more importantly, not susceptible to becoming tangled together or snagged by the surroundings. An electronic textile refers to a textile substrate that incorporates capabilities for sensing (biometric or external), communication (usually wireless), power transmission, and interconnection technology to allow sensors or things such as information processing devices to be networked together within a fabric. Electronic textiles allow little bits of computation to occur on the body. They usually contain conductive yarns that are either spun or twisted and incorporate some amount of conductive material (such as strands of silver or stainless steel) to enable electrical conductivity.
There are several definitions for “e-textile” in the world today. The terms stands for “electronic textile” or “electronically integrated textile.” Most definitions touch on the following qualities:
• Electronic textiles combine traditional fabrics and fibers with electronics.
• E-textiles enable the transfer of data, including sensor data on heat, light, movement, and other local conditions.
• Electronically integrated textiles are designed primarily with wearable computing in mind, but there are many other applications.
Other definitions look at this concept from a slightly different angle: An e-textile is a circuit that is designed specifically for integration with a textile product.
Ubiquitous and wearable computing has long been a technologist’s dream. But where else are e-textiles proving useful? Current applications include health care devices, interior design, automotive interiors, commercial banners and signage, running apparel and outdoor gear.
There are two main types of e-textiles:
• Embedded e-textiles have their electronic components woven together with the fabric components. This type is more like a textile product than an electronic product.
• Laminated e-textiles have their circuitry printed onto a non-textile material which is then bonded or sewn to the surface of a textile. This type may more closely resemble an electronic product than a textile product.
Consider products such as:
• E-textile: A shirt that takes regular measurements of the wearer’s heart rate while they’re exercising and pairs with a smartphone app.
• E-textile: Small, light, and stylish wearable medical devices that monitor blood oxygen or other difficult-to-detect health metrics and sends alerts to a medical team automatically.
• E-textile: A pair of shorts that deliver tips on proper running form based on the user’s pace, posture and level of exertion.
• E-textile: A backpack for children that incorporates GPS and other location functionality into the fabric for safety purposes.
E-textiles provide “intelligent” features or use a connection with a smartphone or tablet to “borrow” computing power. A smart textile, meanwhile, doesn’t have this kind of intelligence. It provides either passive functionality or a function the user can enable or disable at will.
E-textiles, also known as electronic textiles or smart textiles, are fabrics that enable digital components (including small computers), and electronics to be embedded in them.
Properties of e-textile:
• No wires to snag environment
• Large surface area for sensing
• Invisible to others
• Cheap manufacturing
• Thermal Resistance
• Electrical resistance
Types of e-textile:
The field of e-textiles can be divided into two main types:
• E-textiles with classical electronic devices such as conductors, integrated circuits, LEDs, and conventional batteries embedded into garments.
• E-textiles with electronics integrated directly into the textile substrates. This can include either passive electronics such as conductors and resistors or active components like transistors, diodes, and solar cells.
Most research and commercial e-textile projects are hybrids where electronic components embedded in the textile are connected to classical electronic devices or components. Some examples are touch buttons that are constructed completely in textile forms by using conducting textile weaves, which are then connected to devices such as music players or LEDs that are mounted on woven conducting fiber networks to form displays. Printed sensors for both physiological and environmental monitoring have been integrated into textiles including cotton, Gore-Tex, and neoprene.
Manufacturing of E-Textiles:
A thread can be made to conduct electricity by either coating it with metals like copper or silver. It can also be made conductive by combining cotton or nylon fibers with metal fibers when it is spun.
Inputs for e-textiles:
To obtain information for wearable devices components such as sensors are often used, for instance, environmental sensors, antennas, global positioning system receivers, sound sensors and cameras. Such sensors can be divided on active and passive (Langenhove & Hertleer, 2004)(Seymour, 2009). Active inputs are controlled by a user via a tactile or acoustic feedback system, which provides an intuitive interaction with the garment. Passive inputs collect biometric data from the human body as well as environmental data collected via wireless transmission system.
Construction of E-Textiles:
• Lily Pad Arduino
• Fabric kit
1. Conductive fabrics and textiles are plated or woven with metallic elements such as silver, nickel, tin, copper, and aluminum these are: electro-nylon, electr-onylon nickel, clear-mesh, soft-mesh, electro-lycra and steel-cloth. All these textiles show amazing electrical properties, with low surface resistance15, which can be used for making flexible and soft electrical circuits within garments or other products, pressure and position-sensing systems. They are lightweight, flexible, durable, soft and washable (some) and can be sewn like traditional textiles, which makes them a great replacement for wires in computational garments.
2. Conductive threads and yarns have a similar purpose to wires and that is to create conductive paths from one point to another. However, unlike wires they are flexible and can be sewn, woven or embroidered onto textile, allowing for soft circuits to be created. Conductive threads and yarns offer alternative ways of connecting electronics on soft and flexible textiles medium as well offering traditional textile manufacturing techniques for creating computational garments.
3. Conductive coatings are used to convert traditional textiles into electrically conductive materials. The coatings can be applied to different types of traditional fibers, yarns and fabrics, without changing their flexibility, density and handling.
4. Conductive ink is an ink that conducts electricity, providing new ways of printing or drawing circuits. This special ink can be applied to textile and other substrates. Conductive inks contain powdered metals such as carbon, copper or silver mixed with traditional inks.
Other materials are:
• Shape memory alloys (SMA or muscle wire)
• Piezoelectric materials
• Chromic materials
• Photo-chromic (inks and dyes)
• Thermo-chromic inks
• Nano-materials and microfibers
Some of the most advanced functions that have been demonstrated in the lab include:
• Organic fiber transistors: The first textile fiber transistor that is completely compatible with textile manufacturing and that contains no metals at all.
• Organic solar cells on fibers
The use of fabric as station to deploy electrical components results in wearable electrical/ computing devices.
The e-textiles market relies majorly on e-fibers for electrical, electro-optic, and electronic functionalities. E-textiles vary over a range of products including clothing apparels, bandages, drapes, and bed linen. E-textile fabrics can emit light, can sense heat, coolness, can change shape, compute, show changing images, communicate wirelessly, use ambient energy for creating electricity when required, diagnose problems, and at times treat clinical conditions. Manufacturers are emphasizing on using stretchable fibers, photovoltaic cells, super-capacitors for harvesting ambient energy, and using it for generating power when needed. E-textile electronic fabrics can transform energy from sunlight, body temperature, and motion energy into electrical energy. Vendors are investing highly on research and development activities to enhance the performance of fabrics. Major emphasis is being laid on developing waterproof and breathable fabrics that ensure personal comfort and protection along with moisture management techniques. Modern concepts and technologies such as phase change are incorporated into fabrics to maintain and control the body temperature, thereby providing comfort for athletes.
The global e-textiles market can be classified on the basis of type of electronic devices. It comprises of e-textiles using classical electronic devices and e-textiles using modern electronic devices. Classical electronic devices comprise of wires, batteries, integrated circuits, and LED’s. Modern electronic devices comprise conducting fibers, solar cells, diodes, and transistors.
Fabrics that see, hear, sense, communicate, store and convert energy, regulate temperature, monitor health, and change color.